EM stands for Effective Microorganism was developed at the University of Ryukush, Okinawa, Japan in the early 1980s by a distinguished professor of horticulture, Dr. Teuro Higa. EM is a mix culture of aerobic and anaerobic, non GMO (Naturally Occurring), non-chemical, nontoxic (environmental friendly), and non-pathogenic (beneficial) microorganism.
EM encourages the growth of beneficial microbes indigenous to the environment. EM detoxifies contaminated water and soil and facilitate the restoration of an ideal biological balance. The potential of EM in treating all kind of waste, including effluent generating by industrial, agriculture and consumer application is therefore limitless.
When EM is introduced to a polluted area like wastewater, Solid waste and soil the EM microorganism will immediately begin feeding on the organic matter and multiplying – creating in the process, enzymes that curb pollution.
The wastewater from industries and household varies so greatly in both flow and pollution strength. So, it is impossible to assign fixed values to their constituents. In general, industrial wastewaters may contain suspended, colloidal and dissolved (mineral and organic) solids. In addition, they may be either excessively acid or alkaline and may contain high or low concentrations of colored, lignin, cellulose and other complex organic matter. Use of EM will help in degrading complex organic matter into simpler form and also suppress harmful bacteria in system. There are some major benefits of EM listed below.
Bioremediation: “Remediate” means to solve a problem, and “bio-remediate” means to use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater and water bodies.
A healthy aquatic environment is a delicate balance between its ‘organic’ and ‘inorganic’ constituents. A common problem is that a water body has too much complex organic material present – this settles to the bottom where it forms silt and sludge and reduce capacity of aquatic body. The settled silt and sludge becomes the home for anaerobic bacteria which feed on the organic material, producing methane and hydrogen Sulfide gas – making the mud anxious and locking up nutrients.
EM is extremely efficient in breaking down the complex organic matter into simpler form, so that it can be used by other microbes like phytoplankton which in turn become feed for zooplankton and other invertebrates, which are in turn become food for fish. As these beneficial microbes grow in numbers, so do their capabilities to bio remediate water, soil and waste material.
Every day, urban India generates 188,500 tons of MSW (or 68.8 million tons per year) and the waste generation increases by 50% every decade. More than 80% of this waste to reach open dumpsites where it causes damaging public health, deteriorating the environment, and causes climate change. Almost 72% of this waste is organic that is easily biodegradable and easily manage by EM technology and convert it into organic fertilizer that is rich in NPK and good for soil health. Some key benefits of EM for Solid waste is listed below.
A landfill is a designated area in which a carefully designed structure is built into or top of the ground where waste is brought and dumped. Landfills are the easiest and cheapest solution to getting rid of garbage problems. Landfills contain primarily Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The major problem are Landfills create a clear and obvious threat to human health as well as a threat to our environment from the hazardous contaminated air emissions emitted from the landfill biodegradation. The key environmental problem we face as a result of landfills is groundwater pollution from leachates (the liquid that drains or ‘leaches’ from a landfill). EM technology helps in reducing air pollution and leachate problem. EM are added to leachate and the landfill waste to detoxify the leachate, eliminating the worries of groundwater contamination.